Self-Reproduction of the Universe

Inflationary cosmology is different in many respects from the standard big-bang cosmology. Domains of the inflationary universe with sufficiently large energy density permanently produce new inflationary domains due to stochastic processes of generation of the long-wave perturbations of the scalar field. Therefore, the evolution of the universe in the inflationary scenario has no end and may have no beginning.

Here we present the results of computer simulations of generation of quantum fluctuations in the inflationary universe. These processes should occur in the very early universe, at the densities just below the Planck density.


Fluctuating inflaton field

1) Series of figures in gold show generation of fluctuations of the scalar field \varphi during inflation. Classically, the value of this field should decrease, but quantum perturbations lead to formation of exponentially large domains containing the scalar field which is much bigger than its initial value. In particular, calculation of the volume of the parts of the universe corresponding to the peaks of the “mountains” shows that it is much bigger than the volume of the parts where the scalar field rolled to the minimum of its energy density.


Fluctuations of the inflaton field (shown as the height of the mountains) and of the second field (shown by different colors, depending on its value)

2) Series of figures in red, blue, and green show evolution of another scalar field, which has three different minima of its potential energy density. In the regions when the inflaton field is large (it is represented by the height of the mountains), the second field strongly fluctuates. In the domains where the inflaton field is small, the second field relaxes near one of the three minima of its potential energy density, shown by red, blue, and green correspondingly. Each such domain is exponentially large. If the second field is responsible for symmetry breaking in the theory, then the laws of low-energy physics inside domains of different colors are different. The universe globally looks not like an expanding ball, but like a huge fractal consisting of exponentially large domains permanently produced during inflation.


Kandinsky universe

3) This movie shows only the evolution of the second field, determining the choice of the symmetry breaking (shown by different colors), so the images are two-dimensional. This made it possible to perform simulations on a much greater scale and with a much better resolution. We called this series of images “Kandinsky universe,” after the famous Russian abstractionist.